Down Syndrome is the most prevalent and recognizable chromosomal abnormality in live born children, with a current prevalence of 2.8 out of 1000 children born with the genetic disorder . In 1866, John Langdon Down termed the condition “mongolism” before it was later termed Down syndrome in honor of his discovery. Nearly a century later, geneticists Jerome Lejeune and Patricia Jacobs reported the chromosomal abnormality for the first time in humans to be secondary to a trisomy of chromosome 21 . The reason that Down syndrome is still so common today is because there has been an increase in older women having babies. Maternal age is an important factor that plays into the possibility of a child being born with Down syndrome. More than half of the pregnancies with Down syndrome occur in women who are over 35 years old .
For the past 50 years, medical technology has drastically improved and created the ability to observe abnormal fetal characteristics through the use of modern techniques, such as ultrasound and aneuploidy screenings. Once the child is born, some characteristics of humans affected with Down syndrome include having a broad, flat face, oval eyes, a small nose, a thick
￼Down Syndrome: From History to Genetic Mechanisms 2 tongue, and large, thick lips . The skin also often has a slight dirtyyellowish tint and has elasticity deficiency, which creates the appearance that it is too large for the body .
Fortunately, with the advancements in the medical…