Behavioral Views Of Learning As A Universal Learning Process Essay

857 Words Nov 18th, 2014 4 Pages
Behavioral Views of Learning.

Behaviorism is a perspective on learning that focuses on changes in individuals’ observable behaviors. Observable behaviors are characterized as changes in what people say or do (Sutton and Seifert 22). This learning theory focuses on objectively observable behaviors and discounts any independent activities of the mind. Behaviorists define learning as nothing more than the acquisition of new behavior based on environmental conditions (Behaviorism).
Behaviorists identify conditioning as a universal learning process. There are two types of conditioning, each yielding a different behavioral pattern. These are respondent (or classical) conditioning, and behavioral (or operant) conditioning. Respondent conditioning begins with the involuntary responses to particular sights, sounds, or other sensations. Involuntary stimuli and responses were first studied by the Russian scientist, Ivan Pavlov (1927). In order to understand how respondent conditioning works, it is important to be familiar with the basic principles of the process. The unconditioned stimulus is one that unconditionally and naturally triggers a response. The unconditioned response is the unlearned response that occurs naturally in response to the unconditioned stimulus. The conditioned stimulus is the previously neutral stimulus that, after becoming associated with the unconditioned stimulus, triggers a conditioned response. The conditioned response is the learned response…

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